SECTION 1005 — PILES
1005.1 DESCRIPTION —
This work is the furnishing and the driving of test piles, test load piles, and bearing piles.
The following definitions apply:
(a) Test Pile.
A pile driven to verify the pile hammer's capability and to determine driving characteristics, prior to driving test load piles and bearing piles.
(b) Test Load Pile.
A pile in a pile load test, also referred to as a load test pile.
(c) Pile Load Test.
A test to determine pile capacity by the application of a static load.
(d) Bearing Pile.
A pile driven for the purpose of providing structure support.
Point Bearing Pile.
A pile that develops bearing capacity, primarily by point-bearing on bedrock.
(f) End Bearing Pile.
A pile that develops bearing capacity primarily by embedment of the lower portion in a dense or hard-bearing statum.
(g) Friction Pile.
A pile that develops bearing capacity primarily from friction with the surrounding soil throughout the pile length.
The length of pile driven into a soil or rock stratum.
(i) Driving Resistance.
The resistance of soil or rock strata to pile driving, in blows per length of penetration.
The rate at which driving advances a pile into a soil or rock stratum, in inches per blow. Penetration rate is the reciprocal of the driving resistance.
(k) Estimated Pile Tip Elevation.
The tip elevation indicated.
(m) Predetermined Pile Tip Elevation.
The tip elevation, determined by the Engineer, from the pile load test or test piles. The predetermined tip elevation locates the intended bearing strata for point bearing or end bearing piles, or establishes the length of friction piles. Predetermined tip elevations are used to verify or adjust the estimated tip elevations indicated.
(n) Impending Damage.
A driving stress above which rupture or excessive deformation of the pile occurs. The point of impending damage is given as a percentage of the yield point of the material in the pile.
For timber piles impending damage is defined as a driving stress of 85% of the crushing strength of the timber material as estimated from a wave-equation analysis.
(p) Maximum Permissible Driving Resistance for Timber Piles.
The driving resistance at 2.5 times the safe bearing value of the timber pile in the wave-equation analysis, and 1.5 times the safe bearing value of the timber pile when the dynamic formula is used.
1005.2 MATERIAL —
(a) Timber Piles.
Certify as specified in Section 106.03(b)3.
Provide timber piles of either Southern Pine, Douglas Fir, or Western Larch; cut from live, sound and solid trees; free from reverse bends and large unsound knots.
Timber piles are to be clean-peeled and pressure treated.
Pressure treat in accordance with AASHTO-M133 pressure process. Use preservatives of either creosote oil or creosote coal-tar solution. The minimum amount of preservative to be retained in the piles is 10 pounds per cubic foot of wood, when treated by the empty-cell process.
Furnish an affidavit, giving treatment details, obtained from the treating company.
Use timber piles with minimum 1 inch thick sapwood at the butt end and at least 1 inch of clean wood between any 2 inner bark strips.
The use of timber piles with a defect or combination of defects which will impair the strength of timber piles more than the maximum knot are not permitted.
Measure the timber pile circumference and/or diameter under the bark, and limit the maximum and minimum measurements as follows:
3 Feet from Butt (in.)
40 to 50
Over 50 to 70
Over 70 to 90
Provide timber piles with acceptable metal points, firmly attached to the piles, in full contact with the pile tips.
(b) Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles.
These piles consist of steel shells equipped with steel end closures or other acceptable designs, reinforced as indicated, then filled with Class A Cement Concrete. Fill the shells with concrete, after driving.
1. Steel Shells.
Provide the type and size shells indicated and as follows:
Of watertight construction
Cylindrical, uniformly tapered, step-tapered, or a combination of the shapes
Having a nominal diameter not less than 12 inches for cylindrical shells and not less than 12 inches for the butt end of uniformly tapered shells
Having a tip diameter of less than 8 inches, for uniformly tapered shells
Having a diameter at any section of step-tapered piles, not less than the diameter of a shell of uniform taper from point to butt and having the same butt diameter
Having plain, fluted, or other acceptable wall design
Furnish a certified report showing the chemical and physical properties of the base metal used in the shells, end closures, and splice material. Obtain acceptance for end closure details and splicing details, if not indicated, before driving begins.
The wall thickness indicated is the minimum required to satisfy structural design requirements. Increase the thickness, as required, to withstand driving without failure. If a minimum shell thickness is not indicated, select any thickness conforming to specifications, provided the shell will withstand driving without failure.
Assure that the manufacturer of steel shell piles furnishes a certified statement that the shells, end closures, and splice material comply with the specification requirements. Forward these certifications, together with copy of the certified report showing the chemical and physical properties of the base metal with the shipment, for the project file.
Certify as specified in Section 106.03(b)3.
1.a Thick-Wall Steel Shells.
Having a wall thickness of No. 9 gage or thicker; consisting of steel pipe, ASTM-A252, Grade 1, 2, or 3; or cold-rolled steel tubing, basic open-hearth steel (AISI C1010 or SAE 1010) with a minimum yield strength of 50,000 psi.
Provide end closures of forged steel, cast steel, steel plate, or other acceptable material as follows: forged steel, AISI 1020; cast steel, AASHTO-M103, Grade U-60-30. For flat steel plate end closures, provide plates not less than 3/4-inch thick, in accordance with AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709) Grade 36. Provide end enclosures not extending more than 1/4-inch beyond the surface of the shell, adequately welded to the shell.
Provide shells, preferably in one piece without splices. Where splicing is necessary, use extensions between the tip and butt end of at least 10 feet long. At the butt ends, use extensions 5 feet or more in length for approximately 75% of the shells within a footing. At the tip ends, use extensions, if required, 5 feet or more in length.
Splice shells by welding, using full penetration butt welds and acceptable backing bars, using acceptable sleeves with full perimeter fillet welds, or using another accepted design. Provide splices developing the yield strength of the shell, based on the indicated shell thickness. If the shell thickness exceeds the required indicated thickness, base the splice strength on the indicated shell thickness, unless a stronger splice is needed to resist driving forces.
1.b Thin-Wall Steel Shells.
Having a wall thickness less than No. 9 gage. The indicated diameter is the diameter of a mandrel that can be inserted in the shell. Provide shell and end closures of basic open-hearth steel (AISI C1010 or SAE 1010) or of material as otherwise accepted. Provide shell thickness that will withstand driving without failure and will support the surrounding material after the shell has been driven, but in no case thinner than No. 18 gage. Provide end closures extending not more than 1/4-inch beyond the shell surface.
Make splices and end closures connections with full perimeter welds or with other acceptable methods that keep the shells watertight after being driven.
(c) Steel H-Piles.
Piles and/or pile sections and splice material, all AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709) Grade 36. Provide cast tip reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO-M103, Grade 65-35, and fabricated tip reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709) Grade 36. Preferably, provide each pile in one piece without splices. When splicing is permitted, use extensions between the tip and butt end, not less than 10 feet long; at butt ends, use extensions 5 feet or more in length for approximately 75% of the piles in a footing; as required, at the tip ends, use extensions at least 5 feet long. Provide splices developing the yield strength of the pile.
Furnish a certified report showing the base metal chemical and physical properties used in the piles or pile sections, tip reinforcement, and splice material. Before pile driving, submit tip reinforcement and splicing details for review and acceptance.
Assure the manufacturer of the steel H-piles and pile tip reinforcement furnishes certification as specified in Section 106.03(b)3. Forward these certifications, together with the certified report showing the chemical and physical properties, within three working days after shipment, for the project file.
(d) Other Material.
Class A Cement Concrete — Section 704; for filling shells, use concrete with a slump of 3 1/2 inches ± 1 inch
Reinforcement — Section 709.1
Welding — Section 1105.02(t)
1005.3 CONSTRUCTION —
Use pile-driving equipment of an acceptable type, weight, and capacity. Use air compressors of sufficient capacity to provide 25% additional air above that shown in the manufacturer's specifications for air-driven hammers.
Acceptance of the pile hammer and driving equipment will not relieve the Contractor's responsibility for properly driving piles, in satisfactory condition, to the driving resistance and tip elevations indicated or directed.
Do not use capblocks or cushions containing asbestos.
Use acceptable pile-driving hammers, either drop-steam, air, or diesel actuated.
Use hammers, capable of developing not less than 7,000 foot-pounds per blow, for timber piles, and not less than 12,000 foot-pounds per blow for other types of piles, unless otherwise permitted.
Equip closed-end diesel hammers with a dial gage for measuring pressure in the bounce chamber. Provide a hose for the gage long enough to enable reading at ground level. Calibrate the dial gage to allow for losses in the gage hose. Verify the accuracy of the calibrated dial gage to allow for losses in the gage hose. Verify the accuracy of the calibrated dial gage both during driving of the test piles and, when directed, during driving of the bearing piles. Ensure that cylinder lift occurs when the bounce chamber pressure is consistent with the maximum energy given in the hammer specifications. Do not use closed-end diesel hammers that do not attain cylinder lift at the maximum energy bounce chamber relationship given in the hammer specifications.
Equip hammers with a suitable drive head or anvil that accurately and securely holds the top of the pile in correct position, with reference to the hammer, and that distributes the blows from the ram over the entire top area of the pile or mandrel.
Within reasonable limits, use the optimum type and size of hammer for the indicated pile and subsurface conditions at the structure site. The capability of the hammer to properly drive the piles will be verified from driving records of test piles at each substructure unit, at locations indicated or directed. If information from indicated soundings, dug test pits, and auger or test borings is used to analyze subsurface conditions, refer to Section 102.05 for conditions pertaining to use of this information.
Use a hammer of a type and size that enables piles to be driven to any driving resistance without pile damage due to driving stresses.
An estimate of the point of impending damage in piles, due to driving stresses, will be made from a wave equation analysis for the hammer, drive head size, type of capblock, cushion material, and length of pile in the leads to be used, or by observations during the test-pile driving operation. The point of impending damage in steel piles or shells is defined as a driving stress of 100% of the yield point of the pile material, as estimated from a wave-equation analysis, or a lesser value if the strength of the pile or shell is governed by the strength of the splice. Hammers that cause damage in steel piles at any driving resistance will not be acceptable.
Acceptance of a hammer relative to driving stress damage will not relieve the Contractor's responsibility for piles damaged because of misalignment of the leads, failure of capblock or cushion material, failure of splices, malfunctioning of the hammer, or other improper construction methods. Piles damaged for these reasons will be considered defective and/or unsatisfactorily driven, if it is determined that the damage impairs the strength of the completed pile.
Submit the hammer's operating specifications at least 21 calendar days prior to driving test piles. Also, include in the specifications:
The weight, diameter, and length of the ram;
Drive head and anvil dimensions and weights;
Capblock and cushion data, such as material, thickness, area, modulus of elasticity, and coefficient of restitution;
Net weight of hammer, net weight of cylinder;
Piston areas for double-acting or differential-acting air or steam hammers;
Explosion force and maximum stroke for open-end diesel hammers;
Bounce chamber pressure versus equivalent energy graphs for closed-end diesel hammers; and
Mandrel type and weight, if applicable.
Measure inlet pressures for double-acting and differential-acting air or steam hammers, using a needle gauge at the head of the hammer when driving test piles and, if directed, when driving bearing piles. As an alternative to periodic measurements with a needle gage, a pressure versus speed calibration may be developed for the driving conditions at the site.
If a hammer is used for timber piles for which the Maximum Permissible Driving Resistance (MPDR) is less than 20 blows per inch, do not drive piles beyond MPDR when piles do not reach bedrock. Although point bearing is discouraged, if piles are required to reach bedrock or into very dense stratum for capacity, do not use a hammer with MPDR less than 20 bpi, but size the hammer so that MPDR is approximately 20 bpi.
Construct pile driver leads to allow free movement of the hammer. Hold the leads in true vertical or inclined positions, as required, by guys or stiff braces to insure support of the pile during driving. Provide leads of sufficient length so a follower will not be necessary under normal conditions. The use of leads may not be considered necessary when driving bearing piles around cofferdams or in areas where head room is limited.
Use test piles and bearing piles of the indicated types or sizes. The Department reserves the right to omit any or all test or bearing piles. Furnish each timber pile, steel shell for cast-in-place concrete piles or steel beam pile of the full indicated length and in one continuous unit, unless otherwise permitted. If a test pile is too short for the intended purposes, extend it to the length directed, as specified in Section 1005.3(e).
Where indicated or directed, for cast-in-place concrete piles, securely weld end closures to the shells of test and bearing piles.
Do not drive piles until the excavation is complete in the areas the piles are to occupy, unless otherwise permitted.
Protect timber pile butts with metal bands, collars, or other devices to prevent splitting, excessive brooming, or other damage to the pile.
Avoid injury to timber piles during storage and handling.
Do not break the surface of treated timber piles and do not use cant-hooks, dogs, and/or pike-poles.
Apply 3 brush coats of hot creosote oil to all bolt holes, cuts, daps, or chamfers of timber piles made subsequent to the treatment as well as abrasions of the surface before driving and to tops of timber piles after cutoffs for impregnation treatment.
Furnish timber piles with sufficient length to permit the complete removal of all material damaged by driving.
1. Driving Test Piles.
Where indicated or where directed in writing, drive piles in one continuous operation, except for splicing, so they can be incorporated into the permanent work. Drive piles to absolute refusal, unless otherwise indicated or directed.
2. Driving Bearing Piles.
Where indicated, drive piles plumb or to the indicated batter. Drive piles to absolute refusal or to a predetermined tip elevation and to the driving resistance established from test piles or pile load tests.
Unless otherwise indicated, a predetermined tip elevation is considered approximate, in order to allow for variations in the locations or strength of the stratum from which the pile obtains its primary capacity. The limits of the approximation will be established from pile load tests or test piles.
Do not drive piles until the Engineer has determined the tip elevation and driving resistance from representative test piles or pile load tests.
Unless otherwise authorized, drive piles for a given structure, bridge, or foundation unit with the same hammer, under the same operating conditions, and with the same type and size of capblock and cushion material used to drive the test piles or load test piles.
Redrive piles raised by the driving of adjacent piles to the required driving resistance and tip elevation.
Driven piles will be allowed a maximum permissible deviation of 2 inches in 10 feet, from vertical or from the indicated batter. However, do not drive the piles with their tops more than 6 inches out of the indicated position after driving. Where piles extend above ground for open bent construction, drive each pile with the butt within 2 inches of the indicated location.
Driving Test and Bearing Piles.
Drive piles through embankments until they penetrate approximately 10 feet into original ground, unless absolute refusal is obtained in bedrock or in a dense or hard soil stratum less than 10 feet below original ground. If indicated or directed, spud, auger, or predrill through the embankment material to the original ground.
Jet the piles, if directed. Do not jet through embankment areas. Use enough jets and enough volume and pressure of water at the jet nozzles to erode the material adjacent to and below the pile joint. Withdraw jets before the desired tip elevation is reached. Drive the piles to the predetermined tip elevation and driving resistance.
The Engineer will determine the acceptability of bearing piles that attain absolute refusal above the predetermined tip elevations. Where such bearing piles are unacceptable, drive additional piles, at locations directed. If the additional piles also fail to reach the predetermined tip elevation, and if directed, drive additional test piles to determine whether the predetermined tip elevation may have to be adjusted. Test borings and pile load tests may also be directed. If the tip elevation cannot be adjusted and, if directed, the type and size of pile may be changed; augering, predrilling, spudding, pre-excavation, or jetting may be directed.
If bearing piles attain absolute refusal above a predetermined tip elevation, due to freezing resulting from discontinuous driving, they will be considered as unsatisfactory driven piles.
Do not drive piles within 25 feet of uncured concrete.
For timber test piles, use the indicated lengths and, if such lengths are insufficient, they may be extended by splicing, as required. Do not use timber pile sections less than 5 feet long.
Steel piles may be spliced or extended during the driving operation, provided the methods of splicing are acceptable. Inspect driven steel shells, using an acceptable safe light attached to a cord long enough to reach the entire pile length.
Thoroughly clean driven shells of water and debris and have them accepted before concrete is placed in them. Use special care in filling the shells, to avoid honeycombs and air pockets in the concrete.
Remove piles showing damage, due to improper driving, if the damage would impair the strength of the completed pile and if the pile cannot be rebuilt or extended, as directed. Satisfactorily backfill the hole if it interferes with other construction. Drive another pile as close as possible to the required location within the indicated distance from the edges of the footing. Fill damaged steel shells left in place with concrete.
In full-depth footings, satisfactorily enclose piles that are driven closer to the edges of footings than indicated. Extend far enough to obtain the indicated encasement. Add additional reinforcement, as directed.
Drive timber piles to a maximum bearing value of 28 tons using either the wave equation or the dynamic formula.
4. Absolute Refusal.
For steel piles, absolute refusal will be considered to be reached when the driving resistance attains an average of 20 blows per inch, or more. The total number of blows required to calculate the average driving resistance specified for absolute refusal will be determined from test pile driving results. Blows are required to be not less than the following minimums:
Case 1. Piles Required To Be Driven To Absolute Refusal Into Sound, Well Defined Bedrock (Point Bearing Piles).
After the pile tip reaches the predetermined bedrock elevation, and after penetration becomes 1/4-inch or less for five consecutive blows, absolute refusal will be considered to be reached if the penetration for five additional blows is less than 1/4-inch.
Case 2. Piles Required To Be Driven To Absolute Refusal Into Soft or Decomposed Bedrock, or Dense or Hard Soil Strata (End-Bearing Piles).
After the pile tip reaches the predetermined elevation of the intended bearing stratum, and after the penetration becomes 1/2-inch or less for ten consecutive blows, absolute refusal will be considered to be reached if the penetration for ten additional blows is 1/2-inch or less. After the pile tip enters the intended bearing stratum, if an unreasonably large number of blows is required to increase the driving resistance from ten blows per inch to 20 blows per inch, the Engineer may waive the requirement for driving to absolute refusal.
Case 3. Piles Which Attain Absolute Refusal Above Predetermined Tip Elevations.
Where hard driving is encountered because of dense strata or because of obstructions located above the bearing stratum identified by a predetermined tip elevation, absolute refusal will not be considered until it is determined by the Engineer that the total number of blows, as the averagedriving resistance specified for absolute refusal, indicates that further driving will not advance the pile through the dense strata or obstructions.
5. Pile Tip Reinforcement.
When indicated, attach pile tip reinforcement of the required types and sizes to bearing piles at the required locations. Use pile tip reinforcement for test piles and test load piles representative of the bearing piles for which tip reinforcement is indicated. Acceptable, prefabricated or cast steel tips may be used as an alternate to the indicated tip reinforcement. Submit details for acceptance, including attaching details.
(c) Cutting Off Piles.
After piles have been driven and accepted, cut them off at the indicated top elevations, perpendicular to their axis, unless otherwise directed. Cut off timber piles which support timber caps or grillage, to conform to the plane of the bottom of the superimposed structure.
(d) Filling Shells with Concrete.
1. Filling Thick-Wall Steel Shells.
Fill shells with Class A Cement Concrete. When indicated, place reinforcement, as specified in Section 1001.3(b).
Place approximately 2 feet of mortar in the bottom of the shell, then fill the shell with Class A Cement Concrete. Use mortar having the same strength and slump as the concrete. Mix, place, and cure the concrete, as specified in the applicable parts of Section 1001.3. Drop the concrete into the shells slowly so air pockets are not formed. Discharge concrete through hoppers with a short pipe centered on the shell for piles without rebar-cages. Do not allow concrete to free-fall within the length of the rebar-cage below the length of pile requiring vibration.
2. Filling Thin-Wall Steel Shells.
As specified for thick wall shells and as follows:
Use reinforced concrete for shells 20 feet in length or shorter, for the full length. Reinforce concrete for shells longer than 20 feet, to 20 feet below the cut off elevation, or as indicated. Unless otherwise indicated, the minimum vertical reinforcement required is six #5 bars or their equivalent, spaced uniformly and parallel to the perimeter of the shell, with a 2-inch concrete covering, measured from the shell interior surface to the face of reinforcement. Enclose the vertical steel bars with 1/4-inch round hoops. Space the hoops on centers 1-foot or less, for a length of 4 feet at each end of the reinforcement, and on centers 2-foot or less for the intervening portion. Equivalent spiral reinforcement may be used in place of hoops.
(e) Rebuilding or Extending Piles.
Piles driven below the indicated top of pile elevations, or piles cut off after being driven, may be rebuilt or extended by splicing, if permitted.
Splice, rebuild, or extend timber piles, using suitable timber, as indicated or as accepted by the Engineer.
Thick-wall shells for cast-in-place concrete piles and steel-beam piles may be rebuilt or extended by splicing, if both of the following conditions exist:
The method to be used has been accepted, in writing, by the District Engineer.
The lengths of sections are as specified in Sections 1005.2.
Thin-wall shells for cast-in-place piles may be spliced at any point if the alignment of the shell is maintained; however, do not splice reinforcement unless permitted in writing by the District Engineer.
While piles extend above ground for open bent construction, do not rebuild or splice between the cutoff elevation and a point 10-feet into satisfactory material, unless otherwise directed.
(f) Pile Load Tests.
When pile load tests are required, the proposal will specify the detailed requirements.
(g) Bearing Value of Piles.
When piles are not required or ordered driven to absolute refusal, the Engineer will determine driving resistances, tip elevations, and safe bearing values from pile load tests or wave equation analysis of the test pile-driving results. The wave equation will be used with a factor of safety between 2.0 and 2.5, depending on the variability of the soils at the structure site.
When directed, use the following dynamic formula to control driving of the bearing piles after the Engineer has determined the driving resistance and tip elevation from pile load tests or analyses of the test piles.
P = Safe bearing value, in pounds
S = Average penetration rate, in inches per blow, for the last 10 to 20 blows, or as directed.
Wr = Weight of the ram, in pounds.
Wp = Weight of the pile, drive head, anvil, mandrel, and follower, as applicable, in pounds.
e = Coefficient of restitution for capblock material:
0.80 Laminated micarta or plastic
0.80 Steel on steel (no capblock)
0.80 Steel cable biscuit
Others, as specified by the capblock manufacturer, and if acceptable to the Engineer.
H = Stoke in feet, for air or steam hammers, or minimum observed stroke for open-end diesel hammers at the time penetration rate readings are taken for determining the bearing value. The maximum stroke to be used for open-end diesel hammers will be determined when driving test piles. However, do not exceed 8.5 feet, unless permitted.
E = Energy of closed-end diesel hammers, in foot-lbs.
A = Area of piston, in square inches, for double-acting hammers (smaller piston for differential-acting hammers)
p = Actual air or steam pressure measured with a needle gage at the head of the hammer in pounds per square inch
For closed-end diesel hammers, furnish bounce chamber pressure versus equivalent energy graphs, then determine the energy (E) from these graphs.
When penetration readings are taken for bearing piles, operate the pile hammer in accordance with the applicable speed, stroke, or pressure established from test piles or load test piles.
(h) Pile Log.
A detailed and accurate record will be kept during the driving of piles, showing the pile numbers, types, sizes, actual lengths before driving, sound lengths after driving, driving dates, lengths in footings, penetration rates, model of the hammer, capblock material, rebuilt lengths, extended lengths, and final pay lengths.
Weld splices, pile tip reinforcement, or metal end-closures, as specified in Section 1105.03(r) for the type and position of the welding required.
1005.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT —
Payment will not be made for unauthorized piles, defective piles, unsatisfactorily driven piles, portions of bearing piles cut off, bearing piles not driven, or for any costs for such piles or portions of piles.
Unless otherwise specified, augering, predrilling, spudding, pre-excavation, jetting below the original ground, extracting satisfactorily driven piles, and test borings related to such work, when directed to advance piles to predetermined tip elevations, will be performed as extra work. This extra work will be done at a negotiated price or on a force account basis, where payment for such work is not otherwise provided for in the contract.
The cost of spudding, augering, or drilling to original ground through embankments placed within this contract will be incidental to the contract unit price for test piles and bearing piles, unless payment for such work is provided in the contract.
Extraction and replacement of damaged piles will be done at no cost to the Department.
(a) Test Piles.
Will be paid for at the contract lump sum price per unit or group of units, including necessary cutting off, splicing and rebuilding to the indicated test pile length. The price includes necessary excavation for pile splicing, rebuilding, and extending; all pile driving equipment furnished on the project; costs of transporting the equipment to the project; erecting, maintaining, and moving the equipment within the project; and dismantling and removing the equipment from the project, and pile tip reinforcement.
Additional test piles and extensions in excess of the indicated number and location and the length of extensions added or placed in the leads to make the piles longer than the indicated test pile lengths will be measured and paid for by the linear foot price of bearing piles. The length will be measured from the driven end or the beginning of the splice to the top of the pile or cutoff elevation, for the corresponding type of bearing pile.
For any test piles specified in the proposal, but not required to be placed, adjustment of payment will be made, as specified in Section 110.02. Cutoff portions of test piles will remain the property of the Contractor.
(b) Bearing Piles.
Measured from the pile driven end to the indicated cutoff elevation. If piles are ordered driven to an elevation other than that indicated, measurement will be made from the new pile driven end to the cutoff elevation indicated or directed.
This will not include any portion of the tip reinforcement which extends below the driven end of the pile, where tip reinforcement is paid for separately.
Includes costs of furnishing and driving, cutting off, splicing, rebuilding or extending and excavating necessary for splicing and rebuilding or extending.
A bearing pile which is in satisfactory condition after being driven and which meets specifications except for bearing capacity and/or stability, or because absolute refusal was attained above a predetermined tip elevation, will be considered acceptable for payment. Where such acceptable piles have to be replaced with another type of construction, and are removed or cut off, the length below the cut off elevation, or the bottom of the other construction, is the length for which payment will be made.
Piles which reach absolute refusal above a predetermined tip elevation, due to freezing resulting from discontinuous driving, will be considered as unsatisfactorily driven piles, and will be unacceptable for payment. If either augering, predrilling, spudding, pre-excavation, or jetting is directed because of these unsatisfactory piles, the additional work is to be done at no cost to the Department.
The volume of concrete displaced by piles will not be deducted from the foundation concrete quantities.
(c) End Closures for Shells and Points for Timber Piles.
Acceptable metal end closures for shells for cast-in-place bearing piles and metal points for timber bearing piles will be included in the contract unit price per linear foot for the pile of which it is a part; no separate or additional compensation will be allowed.
End closures and points for test piles and test load piles will be included in the contract lump sum prices for those items.
(d) Bearing Pile Tip Reinforcement.
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