SECTION 1105 — FABRICATED STRUCTURAL STEEL


1105.01 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS — References to Sections of Division II AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (date as indicated) are identified by the abbreviation AASHTO followed by the section number, e.g., AASHTO 11.3.1.7.

(a) Prequalification. Unless otherwise specified, metal fabricators will be required to prequalify to perform work for the Department by establishing proof of their competency and responsibility, in accordance with the AISC Quality Certification Program. Registration and certification of the plant or shop under the AISC program, Category I, II, or III, and submission of a valid certificate to the Structural Materials Engineer, MTD, 1118 State Street, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17120, will be required by the Department. An annual endorsed copy will then be required for continued qualification.
Only fabricator having Category III with Certified Fracture Critical certification may fabricate the following:
Fracture critical members and attachments.
Main members, except for rolled beams
Welded floorbeams
Cross frames and diaphragms for curved bridges
Fabricators having Category I, II or III certification may fabricate the following:
Expansion dams
Bridge drainage material
Welded bearings**
Rolled beams without welding
Cross frames and diaphragms for straight bridges*
Inspection walks
Steel grid flooring
Shop-fabricated material for reinforcing existing bridges*
Sign structures Lighting poles and anchor bases
Welded sound barrier support

*Fabricate in a Category III shop if welding is required

**Fabricators of high load multi-rotational bearings are inspected by Structural Steel Engineers in the Structural Materials Section of the MTD to ensure that suitable machinery, machining ability, certified welders, and welding procedures are used before approval to fabricate bearings is given. AISC certification is not required.

AISC certification is not required for the following:
Castings, forgings and machined parts not welded
High load multi-rotational bearings
Non-metallic bearings
Railings
Protective barriers
Protective fence
(b) Standard Reference. Section 105.04

(c) Shop Drawings. Section 105.02 and as follows:
Bridge members are generally designed in lengths, depth and widths that can be transported from fabrication source to the project. Field splices, if required, are indicated. For shipping purposes, the addition of field splices to shorten members, or the elimination of field splices to lengthen members, will not be accepted on shop drawings without prior written acceptance by the District Engineer, in this case a sketch is required. Design computations prepared in accordance with Design Manual, Part 4, Structures and by a registered Professional Engineer may be required. The District Engineer will not review requests for elimination of field splices unless a notice is included from the TEOD, that a hauling permit can be obtained to ship beams exceeding the dimensions shown on the structure drawings.

(d) Erection Drawings. AASHTO 11.2.2

(e) Inspection.

1. General. The MTD will supervise shop inspection. Give ample notice of the beginning of work so that arrangements can be made for inspection.
The Engineer may waive shop inspection and make a complete inspection at a later stage in the construction sequence. Furnish certified mill reports, in duplicate, covering the structural steel used.

2. Facilities for Inspection. Furnish necessary facilities for the inspection of material and workmanship. Allow inspectors employed by the Department unrestricted access to the premises during plant working hours. The necessary facilities for inspection include a plant office, as specified in Section 609 for Inspector's Field Office, Type C, except provide a four-drawer, fire-resistant (D-label) metal file cabinet in place of a two-drawer, fire-resistant (D-label) metal file cabinet.

3. Plant Inspector's Authority. Plant Inspectors have the authority to reject any material or work not meeting the requirements of these specifications. In case of dispute, the Contractor may appeal to the Engineer, whose decision will be final.

4. Rejections. Material, workmanship, or finished members accepted by the inspector at the shop may be rejected later if they do not conform to the specifications. Repair or replace rejected material or members.

5. Testing. If directed, furnish test specimens of material, as well as equipment, tools, and labor necessary to prepare the specimens and to make the tests.

6. Mill Orders and Shipping Statements. Furnish copies of mill orders and shipping statements, as directed. Show the weights of the individual members on the statement, if directed. Assure that the fabricator presents the Department's shop inspector with a copy of the shipping invoice to be stamped for verification of inspection and approval of steel items prior to shipment. Forward the stamped copy with the shipment for the project file. Mill certifications will be reviewed, approved and returned to the fabricator by the shop inspector.

(f) Storage of Materials. Section 106.05 and as follows:
Place materials to be stored above ground upon platforms, skids or other supports. Place and support to avoid overstress, deformation or damage. Exercise special care for curved members. Keep material free from dirt, grease and other foreign materials and keep properly drained and protected from corrosion.

1105.02 MATERIAL —

(a) Structural Steel.

1. General. General Requirements for Delivery of Rolled Steel Plates, Shapes, Sheet Piling and Bars for Structural Use, AASHTO-M160 (ASTM-A6).
Use structural carbon steel unless otherwise specified.

2. Carbon Steel. Use AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709), Grade 36, unless otherwise specified.

2.a Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes. ASTM-A500, Grade C.

2.b Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Structural Steel Tubing. ASTM-A501.

3. High Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel for Welding.

3.a High-Strength Low-Alloy, Quenched and Tempered Structural Steel Plate. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.1.4.

3.b High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel. AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709), Grades 50 or 50W, of a quality suitable for welding.

3.c High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steel of Structural Quality. AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-709), Grade 50.

3.d High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50,000 psi Minimum Yield Point to 4 in. thick. AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709), Grade 50W.

3.e High-Yield Strength, Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Plate.

3.e.1 High-Yield Strength, Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Plate, Suitable for Welding. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.1,5(a).

3.e.2 High-Strength Alloy Steel Plates, Quenched and Tempered, for Pressure Vessels. ASTM-A517. Meet the supplementary notch toughness requirements specified for AASHTO-M244.

3.e.3 Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Structural Shapes and Seamless Mechanical Tubing. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.1.5(b).

4. Testing. Supplemental Requirements for Notch Toughness — Structural Steel: Meet the supplementary notch toughness requirements for the longitudinal Charpy V-notch tests specified for Zone 2, in Table S1 of the applicable AASHTO Materials Specifications. These supplemental requirements are mandatory for main load carrying member components subject to tensile stress, including:

The requirements are not mandatory for:

If directed at a prefabrication meeting, provide samples for Charpy V-notch testing from steel used in fabricating fracture critical plates and shapes. Submit the samples to the Structural Materials Engineer, MTD, 1118 State Street, Harrisburg, PA 17120. Obtain the samples from plates delivered to the fabricator.

(b) Bedding Material for Bridge Shoes. Section 1107.02(p)

(c) Bolts, Nuts, and Washers. From a manufacturer listed in Bulletin 15 and as follows, unless otherwise indicated or specified:

1. Bolts and Nuts for General Application. ASTM-A307, Grade A

1.a Washers. ASTM-F844

2. Anchor Bolts. AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709), Grade 36, anchor bolts (headed or nonheaded, either straight or bent) and cap screws

2.a Nuts. ASTM-A307, Grade A.

2.b Washers. Federal Specification FF-W-92b dated May 9, 1974, Type A, Grade 1, Class A.

(d) High-Strength Bolts. All bolts, nuts and washers are to be mechanically galvanized as specified in Section 1105.02(s), unless otherwise indicated or specified. Provide high-strength, carbon steel bolts; suitable nuts; and plain hardened washers for structural joints from a manufacturer listed in Bulletin 15, and, unless otherwise indicated or specified, meeting the following requirements:
For high-strength bolts, nuts, and washers to be used with AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709), Grade 50W steel, unpainted, conform to atmospheric corrosion resistance requirements equal to those of AASHTO-M270 (ASTM-A709), Grade 50W.
Conform to the identification markings and dimensions specified in AASHTO, Division II, Sections 11.3.2.2 and 11.3.2.3 respectively.

1. Bolts. AASHTO-M164 (ASTM-A325), except as amended and revised herein.
Provide a lot number on the supplier's certification corresponding to that appearing on the shipping package and certification Form CS-4171. Note, on the supplier's certification, when and where all testing was done, including the rotational capacity tests specified, and include zinc thickness when galvanized bolts are used. Furnish bolts having diameters of from 1/2 inch to 1 inch inclusive, and a hardness of 24 to 33 HRC.
Provide black bolts "oily" to the touch when installed.

2. Nuts. AASHTO-M292 (ASTM-A194) or AASHTO-M291 (ASTM-A563), as applicable.
Provide galvanized heat treated nuts; Grade 2H, DH, or DH3; and mechanically galvanized as specified in Section 1105.02(s) (AASHTO-M232 or AASHTO-M298).
Provide plain (ungalvanized) nuts which are Grade 2, C, D, or C3, having a Rockwell Hardness of 89 HRB; or heat treated, Grade 2H, DH, or DH3.
Lubricate all galvanized nuts with a lubricant containing a dye of any color that contrasts with the color of the galvanizing, so that a visual check can be made for the lubricant at the time of field installation.
Furnish nuts to be galvanized that are tapped oversize the minimum amount required to permit assembly on the bolt thread in the coated condition, and to meet the requirements of AASHTO-M291 (ASTM-A563) and the rotational capacity test specified.

3. Washers. AASHTO-M293 (ASTM-F436), galvanized, when indicated, as specified in Section 1105.02(s) (AASHTO-M232 or AASHTO-M298).

4. Direct Tension Indicator (DTI) Devices. ASTM-F959 and as follows:

4.a General. Provide Direct Tension Indicator (DTI) devices having a hardness of 38 to 45 HRC. Furnish plain DTI devices for use with plain bolts, and, when galvanized bolts are indicated or specified, provide galvanized DTI devices. Galvanize as specified in Section 1105.02(s) (ASTM-B695).
In addition to the bolt tension tests specified in ASTM-F959, test plain finish DTI devices a second time applying the compression load until the average gap measures 0.005 inch. Ensure that the loading remains within the acceptable range specified in Table 3 for the applicable type.
Ship each lot in protective containers marked with the type, lot number, quantity, and total lot size. Include a copy of the certification.
Certify, as specified in Section 106.03(b)3., that the lot conforms to ASTM-F959 and any additional requirements specified.
Handle and store DTI devices in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
Obtain a minimum of 8 samples from each lot, in accordance with PTM No. 1, for testing at the MTD.

4.b Levels of Certification. Use the same levels of certification specified in Section 701.1(b)2.; except, substitute the word "lot" for the word "silo".

5. Testing. Test bolts, nuts, washers, and assemblies as follows:

5.a Bolts. Perform proof load tests in accordance with ASTM-F606, Method 1, at the minimum frequency specified in AASHTO-M164 (ASTM-A325), Section 9.2.4.
Perform wedge tests on full size bolts in accordance with ASTM-F606, Section 3.5. If bolts are to be galvanized, perform testing after galvanizing. Use the minimum testing frequency specified in AASHTO-M164 (ASTM-A325), Section 9.2.4.
If galvanized bolts are supplied, determine the thickness of zinc coating by taking measurements on the wrench flats or top of bolt head.

5.b Nuts. Perform proof load tests in accordance with ASTM-F606, Section 4.2, at the minimum frequency specified in AASHTO-M291 (ASTM-A563), Section 9.3, or AASHTO-M292 (ASTM-A194), Section 7.1.2.1. If nuts are to be galvanized, perform testing after galvanizing, overtapping, and lubricating.
If galvanized nuts are supplied, determine the thickness of zinc coating by taking measurements on the wrench flats.

5.c Washers. If galvanized washers are supplied, perform hardness testing after galvanizing. Remove the coating before taking hardness measurements.
If galvanized washers are supplied, measure the thickness of zinc coating.

5.d Assemblies. Perform rotational-capacity tests on all black or galvanized bolt/nut/washer assemblies before shipping. Test galvanized assemblies after galvanizing. Washers are required as part of the test, even if they are not required as part of the installation procedure.
Except as modified herein, perform the rotational-capacity test in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO-M164 (ASTM-A325).
Perform a rotational-capacity test of long bolts or bolts too short to fit the tension calibrator in accordance with PTM No. 427.
Test each bolt production lot, nut lot, and washer lot in combination as an assembly. Where washers are not required as part of the installation procedure, they need not be included in the lot identification.
Assign a rotational-capacity lot number to each combination of lots tested.
Test a minimum of two assemblies per rotational-capacity lot.
The current AASHTO-M164 (ASTM-A325) requirement, that the test be performed on an assembly while being used in a steel joint, is superseded. Test the bolt/nut/washer assembly in a Skidmore-Wilhelm Calibrator or an equivalent acceptable device.

6. Documentation. Report the results of all tests on the appropriate test report (including zinc coating thickness) as required in these specifications herein and in the applicable AASHTO or ASTM specifications.
Report the location where tests were performed and date of testing.
Tests need not be witnessed by an inspection agency; however, have the manufacturer or distributor performing tests certify that the results recorded are accurate.
Document test reports as follows:

6.a Mill Test Report (MTR). Furnish a mill test report for all mill steel used in manufacturing bolts, nuts, or washers, and indicate where the material was melted and manufactured.

6.b Manufacturer Certified Test Report (MCTR). Have the manufacturer of the bolts, nuts, and washers furnish a test report for each item furnished, and report the required information as specified.
Have the manufacturer performing the rotational-capacity test include the following on the MCTR:

6.c Distributor Certified Test Report (DCTR). Have the distributor performing tests furnish a test report and include the following:

(e) Welded Stud Shear Connectors. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.3.

(f) Steel Forgings and Steel Shafting.

1. Steel Forgings. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.4.1.

2. Cold-Finished Carbon Steel Shafting. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.4.2.

(g) Steel Castings.

1. Mild Steel Castings. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.5.1.

2. Chromium-Alloy Steel Castings. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.5.2.

3. Workmanship and Finish. Make castings boldly filleted at angles, and the arrises perfect, true to pattern in form and dimensions, free from pouring faults, sponginess, cracks, blow-holes, and other defects in positions affecting the castings' strength and value for the service intended.
Defects not affecting the strength and value of the casting for the service intended may be corrected, if permitted in writing by the Chief Bridge Engineer. A blow-hole having a length greater than 1 inch, a cross-sectional area greater than 1/2-square inch, or a depth greater than 1/2-inch, or any group of holes in a straight line 1 foot long, measured on the surface of the casting, and whose gross length is greater than 1 inch, may be cause for rejection.

4. Testing.

4.a Major Castings. Test major castings by radiographing with x-ray or gamma ray apparatus, in accordance with ASTM-E186, E280 or E446, as applicable. See Table A. Major castings are those subject to high loading whose failure in service would cause major damage, e.g., bridge bearings or machinery parts in movable bridges. All castings over 1,000 pounds are major castings.

4.b Minor Castings. Test minor castings by suspending them, then hammering them all over. Minor castings are those whose failure would not lead to failure of main bridge members, e.g., scuppers or gratings.

4.c Rejection. Cracks, flaws or other defects which appear during or after these tests may be cause for rejection.

(h) Iron Castings.

1. Gray Iron Castings. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.6.1(1).

2. Malleable Iron Castings. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.6.1(3).

3. Ductile Iron Castings. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.6.1(2).

4. Workmanship and Finish. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.6.2.

5. Cleaning. AASHTO, Division II, Section 11.3.6.3.


TABLE A
Severity Levels - Radiographically Inspected Castings*
Specification
ASTM Designation
Discontinuity
Type
Designation
Acceptable**
Severity
Level
Remarks
E-466 up to 2"
A
B
C-1
C-2
C-3
C-4
D
E
F
G
3
3
3
3
3
3
-
-
-
-
None Permitted
None Permitted
None Permitted
None Permitted
E 186 2" to 4 1/2"
A
B
C-1
C-2
C-3
D
E
F
3
3
2
3
3
-
-
-
None Permitted
None Permitted
None Permitted
E 280 4 1/2" to 12"
A
B
C-1
C-2
C-3
D
E
F
3
3
2
3
3
-
-
-
None Permitted
None Permitted
None Permitted
Most Current Supplement

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